Geological hazards or Geohazards, natural or human-induced disruptions of the earth surface that may trigger landslides, sinkholes, or earthquakes, present serious threats to communities, cost extensive damage to infrastructure and can bring traffic and services to a standstill. Recent climatic changes have increased the intensity of rainfall and raised mean temperature, increasing hydrological hazards, such as debris or earth flows, erosion, and floods. India has 2% of the total land area of the world but supports more than 17% of global population. Due to diverse geological environment and geodynamic processes, the country faces several types of Geohazards including earthquakes, landslides, tsunami, glacial lake outburst floods, and environment adversely. Due to changing climatic conditions, the incidences and impacts of these Geohazards are increasing. Keeping the above context in mind, the national disaster management authority in India has made attempts to assess the types and levels of these disasters that affected the country in the past . Speculations and predictions with regard to Geohazards are not easy due to their complex behavior in the real human world. In recent time, several aspects of these environmental applications are considered in computer-based modeling to accurately estimating real-world phenomena. However, none of the proposed methods have reached to zero uncertainties or errors to recognize the entire disaster’s events but their importance cannot be denied. It is important to detect, monitor and predict them to protect the inhabitants against the potential natural hazards that threaten human lives and properties. Artificial Intelligence as a tool is proposed that can see different aspects of a complex problem with sufficient iteration and details. In recent years, implementation of AI models coupled with geospatial information systems (GIS) are the most efficient and accurate approach to model natural disasters i.e. flooding, earthquake, landslides, forest fire and drought rather than other existing methods. This gives an insight into the ability of applied AI models in some natural hazards applications.
The paper is proposed to discuss the national initiatives with particular reference to earthquakes and landslides with a view to share and exchange the experiences in disaster risk reduction. How it had helped in learning good and bad practices for promoting disaster resistant / resilient development and nurturing a culture of risk avoidance, prevention, mitigation and preparedness at global level? Recently, Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods have received a great deal of attraction due to their precision to model the complex problems such as natural hazards. How helpful has been professional geologists and engineers and how much have been contributed greatly towards better scientific understanding of the Geohazards and formulating effective plans for safer sustainable development, is proposed to be analysed further in detail in paper.