CO2 neutrality by 2045 requires increasing the currently worldwide achieved CO2 storage volume (40 Mt/y) to the order of tens of Gt/y. With current storage techniques, CO2 often remains in the gaseous phase, thus, free to spread underground risking unwanted leakage in the distant future. As an alternative, the mineralization of CO2 in basalts, where the vast majority (>90%) of the carbon is mineralized and fixed in carbonates within two years, offers a permanent safe storage as a solid (e.g. CarbFix, Iceland).
The international joint project PERBAS (ACT4) with partners from Norway, USA and India aims to pave the way for the commercialization of large-scale, permanent CO2 sequestration into marine basalt complexes off the coast of Norway and India. The project seeks solutions for reservoir selection, CO2 transport, injection and monitoring. PERBAS will investigate the feasibility of supercritical CO2 injection, using water in the pore space, in order to avoid the requirement to inject 20 t of water for 1 t of CO2. This would have the additional advantage that supercritical CO2 would be associated with a free gas phase, which allows the application of geophysical remote sensing for monitoring thereby reducing the number of monitoring wells required.
Within the German sub-project CO2PR, geophysical field data (seismics and electromagnetics) will be collected during a research cruise offshore Norway currently planned for 2024. The resolution and efficiency of associated inversion techniques will be made usable for large-volume (Gt) reservoirs and complemented with new AI methods to identify signals suitable for monitoring.