When it comes to the mining and use of local geological raw materials, a reflexive, sometimes undifferentiated social rejection arises. The ore, hydrocarbon and coal consumption have now been reduced through recycling and the use of alternative energies or have been replaced by imported products. The last open-cast lignite mine in Schöningen was closed in 2016, the last Harz ore mine in Bad Grund in 1992 and the last iron ore mining in the Salzgitter area in 1976. Petroleum is now only produced to a small extent at a few points in the northern Braunschweig region. At the same time, the consumption of resources such as sand, gravel, solid rock (especially limestone, gypsum) and water continues on a high level. The quarrying of building stone has been almost completely ceased. Some raw materials are imported to avoid the conflict over mining, to take advantage of low labor costs abroad, or simply because they are no longer available in sufficient quantities. In terms of sustainability, there is overall significant potential for improvement. In the further planning of mining sites and quarries, special protection of the groundwater reservoir is of outstanding importance. The lecture describes examples from the UNESCO Global Geopark Harz . Braunschweiger Land . Ostfalen.