Skip to main content

The Paleocene -Eocene Thermal Maximum indications based on Planktic and large foraminiferal Turnover across the Kurdistan Foreland Basin (N. Iraq).

The evidence for warming comes from a variety of sources, the most compelling of which is the diversification, extinctions and evolutions of the planktic and benthic forams across the Paleocene -Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). In Kurdistan foreland basin the PETM event is characterized by the late Paleocene planktic foraminifera biozone (Morozovella velascoensis- P.5) that is turnover to the by the first appearance and radiations of the shallow benthic foraminifera, (Alveolina aramaea Zone.SBZ.5, Alveolina pasticillata -Nummulites frassi-Nummulites deserti Zone. SBZ.6). The late Paleocene (Thanetian ) predominated warm benthic foraminifera diversification and rapid evolution manifested by serval species of the hyaline, porcelaneous walled foraminifera like (Alveolina, Somalina, Orbitolites, Idalina, Nummulites frassi, Nummulites deserti, Rotalia trochidiformis, Lockhartia conditi Ranikothalia nuttalli, Assilina). They are also marked by the rapid extinction of late Thanetian aged Ranikothalids, Glomalveolinids( at the upper most of Kolosh Formation) , and the rapid dominance of Alveolinids and Nummulitids in the early Ypresian carbonates (Sinjar Formation). In addition to first apprenace and rapid diversifications of the dasycladacean green algae, coralline red algae, echinoids, and bryozoans. They are associated by the unusual morphologies of the giant gastropods   and pelecypods as coquina band about 1.m thick. Moreover, all faunal lines of evidence point to rapid variations from cold to warm water condition, and from low CO towards more CO2.


Fadhıl Ahmed Ameen1
1Unıversıty of Sulaımanı, Iraq
GeoMinKöln 2022